THE ANCIENT VIKING NAMED AREA
OF CLEVELAND IN THE NORTH EAST OF ENGLANDThe area of north east England, named Cleveland was originally named by Viking immigrants, the exact date of naming is not known. But most likely it was named during the earliest Viking visits to the north east shores of England. The first raids by the Vikings on the north east coast are recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being 793 AD at Lindisfarne, the circumstances surrounding this early raid have in all probability been stretched far beyond the truth.
In my mind similar to the way the Wolf earned its bad reputation i.e. it was only ever guilty of being what it was a wolf ! .
My reason for mentioning the earliest recorded raid at Lindisfarne, is to show that the raid was long before the Vikings inhabited what we now know as York. The Vikings occupied York Jorvik in 865 AD, after a large Danish Viking army had landed in East Anglia.
Yet its fact the Vikings were long acquainted with the North East coast of England and the land beyond ( Cleveland ) long before this date . There should then be no dispute when I state, that the part of Northern England named Yorkshire, did not exist before 865 AD . And the most sceptical must agree that the Vikings, most surly named the area we know as Cleveland well before 865 AD the earliest date for Jorvik .
Cleveland as far as I can make out either translates land of rolling hills or Cliff land, I personally opt for the latter, but this is another jigsaw that needs solving. Regardless of which translation is correct, it seems the Viking named area of ancient Cleveland, must be far older than the English named area called Yorkshire . Therefore making Cleveland possibly the oldest surviving Viking named area in England.
ODIN'S SEAT - ROSEBERRY TOPPING - ODINSBURGE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roseberry Topping as seen from the north
|Elevation||320 m (1,050 ft)|
|Prominence||81 m (266 ft)|
|Location||North York Moors, England|
|Topo map||OS Landranger 193|
At 1,049 feet (320 m), Roseberry Topping is the highest hill on the Cleveland Hills.
The hill is part of the Cleveland hills. It is formed from sandstone laid down in the Middle and Lower Jurassic periods, between 208 and 165 million years ago, which constitutes the youngest sandstone to be found in any of the National Parks in England and Wales. Its distinctive conical shape is the result of the hill's hard sandstone cap protecting the underlying shales and clays from erosion by the effects of ice, wind and rain.
Until 1912, the summit resembled a sugarloaf until a geological fault and possibly nearby alum and ironstone mining caused its collapse. The area immediately below the summit is still extensively pitted and scarred from the former mineworks. The summit has magnificent views across the Cleveland plain as far as the Pennines on a clear day, some 40 to 50 miles (60 to 80 km) away.
 HistoryBronze Age hoard was discovered on the slopes of the hill and is now in the Sheffield City Museum. It was occupied during the Iron Age; walled enclosures and the remains of huts dating from the period are still visible in the hill's vicinity.
The hill was perhaps held in special regard by the Vikings who settled in Cleveland during the early medieval period and gave the area many of its place names. They gave Roseberry Topping its present name: first attested in 1119 as Othenesberg, its second element is accepted to derive from Old Norse bjarg ('rock'); the first element must be an Old Norse personal name, Auðunn or Óðinn, giving 'Auðunn's/Óðinn's rock'. If the latter, Roseberry Topping is one of only a handful of known pagan names in England, being named after the Norse god Odin and paralleled by the Old English name Wodnesberg, found for example in Woodnesborough. The name changed successively to Othensberg, Ohenseberg, Ounsberry and Ouesberry before finally settling on Roseberry. "Topping" is a Yorkshire dialect derivation of Old English topp, 'top (of a hill)'. The naming of the hill may thus fit a well-established pattern in Continental Europe of hills and mountains being named after Odin or the Germanic equivalent, Wodan. Ælfric of Eynsham, writing in the 10th century, recorded how "the heathens made him into a celebrated god and made offerings to him at crossroads and brought oblations to high hills for him. This god was honoured among all heathens and he is called ... Oðon in Danish."