Cleveland Hills

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The Cleveland Hills
IUCN category II (national park)
Moorland and open valley with Cleveland Hills in the distance
The Cleveland Hills viewed from Urra Moor
Map of England and Wales with a red dot representing the location of the Cleveland Hills in the north-east of England
Cleveland Hills
Cleveland Hills
Location of the Cleveland Hills
LocationNorth Yorkshire, England
Nearest cityMiddlesbrough
Coordinates54°24′57.84″N 1°12′4.53″W / 54.4160667°N 1.2012583°W / 54.4160667; -1.2012583Coordinates: 54°24′57.84″N 1°12′4.53″W / 54.4160667°N 1.2012583°W / 54.4160667; -1.2012583
Governing bodyNorth York Moors National Park Authority
Websitenorthyorkmoors.org.uk
The Cleveland Hills are a range of hills on the north-west edge of the North York Moors in North Yorkshire, England, overlooking Cleveland and Teesside. They lie entirely within the boundaries of the North York Moors National Park. Part of the 110-mile (177 km) long Cleveland Way National Trail runs along the hills, which is a part of Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk. The hills, which rise abruptly from the flat Tees Valley to the north, include distinctive landmarks such as the cone-shaped peak of Roseberry Topping, near the village of Great Ayton – childhood home of Captain James Cook.[1]

Contents

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[edit] History

[edit] Formation

Geological studies of the Cleveland Hills plateau date the rocks back to the Middle Jurassic age, making the range approximately 161–176 million years old,[2] although the North York Moors are formed on rocks from the Lower Jurassic age resulting in shale erosion along the north and west faces of the hills. Roseberry Topping is an outlier which was formed as a result of erosion, separating it from the Cleveland Hills formation, making it a unique natural hill.[3]

[edit] Early man

There are a number of tumuli and stone circles[4] scattered throughout the Cleveland Hills and North York Moors, dating back to the Bronze Age, as well as many cairns that are of varied ages, some of which are relatively modern. Hundreds of flint arrowheads have been discovered during excavations in the hills and dated to the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, indication of an active population in prehistoric times across the region.[5]

[edit] Stone circles in the Cleveland Hills

[edit] Mining and industry

In 1850 ironstone was discovered by John Marley of Bolckow and Vaughan in the Eston Hills, outliers of the Cleveland Hills, leading to mining on a large scale and the rapid growth of nearby Middlesbrough.[6][7] By the 1870s industry would be producing steel in vast amounts, and mining for coal, alum, jet, cement stone concretions, shale and potash from the hills, as well as employing sandstone and limestone quarries to gather raw materials. Many of the mines and quarries are still evident today.

[edit] Hill data

The following heights are some of the highest or most notable in the range.
NameGrid referenceHeight
Urra Moor (Round Hill)NZ594015454 m1,490 ft
Cringle MoorNZ537029432 m1,417 ft
Carlton BankNZ519026408 m1,339 ft
Cold MoorNZ551035402 m1,319 ft
Hasty BankNZ565036398 m1,306 ft
Tidy Brown HillNZ603052396 m1,299 ft
Bilsdale West MoorSE553966395 m1,296 ft
Warren MoorNZ616075335 m1,099 ft
Gisborough MoorNZ643123328 m1,076 ft
Easby MoorNZ590101324 m1,063 ft
Park NabNZ614084324 m1,063 ft
Roseberry ToppingNZ579126320 m1,050 ft
Live MoorNZ505013315 m1,033 ft
Highcliff NabNZ610138310 m1,017 ft
Codhill HeightsNZ614127296 m971 ft
Eston NabNZ561800242 m794 ft

[edit] Towns and villages in the Cleveland Hills

Map of the North York Moors area
There are numerous towns and villages on, or in the vicinity of, the Cleveland Hills including the following:

[edit] Interesting places to see

Bilsdale West Moor, situated in the Cleveland Hills, is home to the 314 metres (1,030 ft) tall Bilsdale transmitting station, providing 40–50 miles coverage of UHF transmissions for digital TV and radio in the north-east.[9] The digital switchover is expected to start at Bilsdale from 12 September 2012 and will be one of the last transmitters in England to complete this operation, the others being Pontop Pike and Chatton in the same region.[10]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Captain James Cook – History". Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  2. ^ "Natural England: 25 North York Moors and Cleveland Hills". Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Geology – Cleveland Hills – North York Moors National Park". Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  4. ^ "The Prehistoric Sites of Great Britain". Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  5. ^ "Kirkletham Museum – First People Overview". Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "Tees Archaeology". Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "Middlesbrough and surrounds". Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "The Wainstones". Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "TheBigTower Bilsdale Transmitter". Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "Digital UK – Tyne Tees region". Retrieved 21 August 2012. 

[edit] External links